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Micropropagation of Bixa orellana L. and regulation of annatto dye synthesis.

Parimalan, R. (2008) Micropropagation of Bixa orellana L. and regulation of annatto dye synthesis. PhD thesis, University of Mysore.

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Color is a physical property or phenomena possessed by certain class of chemical compounds that are capable of absorbing and reflecting the electromagnetic waves in the visible region (400-700nm) as perceived through vision (Masland, 1996) by those biological organisms possessing cone cells. Such chemical compounds are called as pigments and the part of the pigment that absorbs or reflects the light are called as chromophores. Of the different types of plant pigments, carotenoids possess a special concern and attention due to its diverse structural and functional properties that are well known. Till date, more than 650 types of carotenoids were identified and reported (Otles and Cagindi, 2008). Plant pigments with special reference to food colorants were four types viz., carotenoids (annatto), anthocyanins, betalains (beetroot pigment) and curcumin (Davies, 2004). These four pigments along with cochineal, account for over 90% of the market (quantitatively) for natural food colorants (Hendry, 1996). Annatto pigment is produced on the aril portion of the seeds of Bixa orellana (Fam: Bixaceae) – a tree native to Brazil – that is responsible for the reddish orange color appearance. Bixin – a unique apocarotenoid (monomethyl ester) – is the major constituent of annatto pigment (Aparnathi and Sharma, 1991). Annatto pigment is well known for its usage in dairy industry for cheese and butter (50 percent), fish processing (20 percent), confectionaries (10 percent), cosmetics and other major food grade coloring industries (20 percent). In general, oil-soluble extracts and oil suspensions are commercialized at 0.2-0.3% and 4% pigment content respectively; whereas, watersoluble extracts and spray dried products are at 5% and 14% respectively (Francis, 1999). Maximum levels of annatto pigment that can be used in various food formulations were specified by the expert committee of FAO/WHO (JECFA, 2001). Annatto pigment was extracted mostly by using chloroform. There are various processes available for annatto pigment extraction including the one from CFTRI Resource Center, Hyderabad (730/DEL/2000) On analyzing the requirements for advancement of science in annatto towards the better utility of the crop for better prospects and better understanding, the present study was formulated and framed with six objectives viz., i) standardization of tissue culture PhD synopsis of Parimalan, R. 2 protocol for efficient mass multiplication; ii) studies on the levels of annatto color during developmental stages of fruits and elicitor mediated enhancement of annatto color under in vitro and in vivo; iii) down stream processing of annatto pigment; iv) molecular characterization of germplasm by RAPD; v) regulation of the lycopene cleavage dioxygenase gene using anti-sense approach for production of lycopene; and vi) developing an efficient transformation protocol for Bixa orellana for in vitro production of annatto pigment.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Plant pigments; Annatto Pigment; Bixin; In vitro production
Subjects: 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 14 Physical properties > 01 Colours
500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 10 Plants
500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 10 Plants > 05 Tissue Culture
Divisions: Plant Cell Biotechnology
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2010 04:03
Last Modified: 23 Mar 2010 04:03
URI: http://ir.cftri.res.in/id/eprint/9405

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