[feed] Atom [feed] RSS 1.0 [feed] RSS 2.0

Items where Subject is "500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 07 Life Sciences > 03 Biochemistry & Molecular Biology > 07 Enzyme Biochemistry"

Up a level
Export as [feed] Atom [feed] RSS 1.0 [feed] RSS 2.0
Group by: Creators | Item Type
Jump to: A | B | C | D | G | H | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y
Number of items at this level: 100.


Acharya, B. Vishu Kumar and Varadaraj, M. C. and Lalitha, R. Gowda and Tharanathan, R. N. (2005) Characterization of chito-oligosaccharides prepared by chitosanolysis with the aid of papain and Pronase, and their bactericidal action against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Biochemical Journal, 391 (2). pp. 167-175.

Achintya Kumar, Dolui and Arunkumar, V. and Ram, Rajasekharan and Vijayaraj, P. (2020) Activity‑based protein profling of rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran serine hydrolases. Scientific Reports, 10. p. 15191.

Aiyar, A. S. and Sreenivasan, A. (1962) Studies on biosynthesis of coenzyme A in vitro by rat tissues. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 50. pp. 95-99.

Ajila, C. M. and Prasada Rao, U. J. S. (2009) Purification and characterization of black gram (Vigna mungo) husk peroxidase. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 60 (1-2). pp. 36-44. ISSN 1381-1177

Akhilender Naidu, K. and Abhinender Naidu, K. A. and Kulkarni, A. P. (1994) Lipoxygenase: a non-specific oxidative pathway for xenobiotic metabolism. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 50 (4). pp. 155-9. ISSN 0952-3278

Anu, V. Chandran and Rajan, Prabu. J and Asha, Nautiyal and Neelakanteshwar Patil, K. (2015) Structural studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecA: Molecular plasticity and interspecies variability. Journal of Biosciences, 40 (1). pp. 13-30. ISSN 0021-8561

Anubhuti, Gaur (2017) Cloning and Expression of human alpha-glucosidase in bacterial expression system. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Anusree, Lohithakshan and Raja, Narayanasamy and Upasana, S. Potteth and Shwetha, Keshava and Vibha, Nagaraja and Usharani, D. and Ravi, Kumar (2021) Molecular insights into the mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis of bifunctional FAD synthetase from Staphylococcus aureus. Biochimie, 182. pp. 217-227. ISSN 0300-9084


Baskaran, N. and Prakash, V. and Appu Rao, A. G. and Radhakrishnan, A. N. and Savithri, H. S. and Appaji Rao, N. (1989) Mechanism of interaction of O-amino-D-serine with sheep liver serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Biochemistry, 28. pp. 9607-9612.

Baskaran, N. and Prakash, V. and Savithri, H. S. and Radhakrishnan, A. N. and Appaji Rao, N. (1989) Mode of interaction of aminooxy compounds with sheep liver serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Biochemistry, 28. pp. 9613-9617.

Bhavyashree, S. (2006) Media Optimisation for Lipase Production. [Student Project Report]

Borthakur, A. and Rao, A. G. A. and Ramadoss, C. S. (1990) Bengal gram lipoxygenase: fluorescence quenching study of the interaction of linoleic acid and 13- and 9-hydroperoxylinoleic acids with the two forms of the enzyme. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 38 (7). 1487-1490, 18 ref..


Chandrasekaran, A. (1967) Purification and hydrolytic activity of Pestalotiopsis westerdijkii enzyme. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4 (4). pp. 159-161.

Chandrasekaran, A. and Shanthamma, M. S. (1969) A new technique for the economic production of cellulase. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6 (1). 12-14, 12 ref..

Chandrasekhara, N. and Rao, M. V. L. and Srinivasan, M. (1968) Influence of dietary protein on the enzyme system synthesising ascorbic acid in the rat. Indian Journal of Biochemistry, 5. pp. 22-24.


Darshi, Patni (2016) Utilization of wheat bran and xylo-oligosaccharides by Aspergillus niger CFR1105 with an emphasis on xylanolytic enzymes activity. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Deepesh, Panwar and Shubhashini, A. and Sachin, R. Chaudhari and Harish Prashanth, K. V. and Mukesh, Kapoor (2020) GH36 α-galactosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 synthesize Gal-α-1,6 linked prebiotic α-galactooligosaccharide by transglycosylation. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 144. pp. 334-342. ISSN 0141-8130

Devi, N. A. and Rao, A. G. (1998) Conformation of polygalacturonase-II from Aspergillus carbonarius--a spectroscopic study. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 44 (1). pp. 79-87. ISSN 1039-9712

Dhruv Nilesh, Mistry (2020) In-silico studies on AlphaGlucosidase for improving trans-glycosylation activity. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)


Gaurav Singh, Kaira and Mukesh, Kapoor (2021) Molecular advancements on over-expression, stability and catalytic aspects of endo-b-mannanases. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 41 (1). pp. 1-15. ISSN 0738-8551

Gaurav Singh, Kaira and Usharani, D. and Mukesh, Kapoor (2020) Zn2+ stapling of N and C-terminal maintains stability and substrate affinity in GH26 endo-mannanase. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 135. ISSN 0141-0229

Gnanesh Kumar, B. S. and Prasad Mohan, Reddy and Sanjay, K. (2018) Comparative Site-Specific N‑Glycosylation Analysis of Lactoperoxidase from Buffalo and Goat Milk Using RP-UHPLC−MS/ MS Reveals a Distinct Glycan Pattern. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 66. pp. 11492-11499. ISSN 0021-8561

Gopalakrishna, K. N. and Kaul, P. and Kumar, P. R. and Prakash, V. (2002) Role of disulfide bridges in structure-activity relationship of plant lipases from wheat germ and rice bran. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 1 (2). 188-196, 34 ref..


Hemalatha, M. S. and Leelavathi, K. and Salimath, P. V. and Prasada Rao, U. J. S. (2014) Control of chapati staling upon treatment of dough with amylases and xylanase. Food Bioscience, 5. 73 -84.


Jagadeesh, B. H. and Prabha, T. N. and Srinivasan, K. (2004) Activities of beta-hexosaminidase and alpha-mannosidase during development and ripening of bell capsicum (Capsicum annuum var. variata). Plant Science, 167. pp. 1263-1271.

Jaleel, S. A. (1977) Studies on starch degrading enzymes from moulds. Masters thesis, Central Food Technological Research Institute.


Kalaivani, P. and Sarma, Mutturi (2017) Regeneration of NADPH Coupled with HMG-CoA Reductase Activity Increases Squalene Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65. pp. 8162-8170. ISSN 0021-8561

Karuna Kumar, M. (1982) Studies on enzymes and isoenzymes in stress conditions. Doctoral thesis, Central Food Technological Research Institute.

Katwa, L. C. and Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1983) Immobilization of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and glucose isomerase on CNBr activated sepharose-6MB. Biotechnology Letters, 5 (3). 191-196, 11 ref..

Katwa, L. C. and Ramakrishna, M. and Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1981) Spectrophotometric assay of immobilized tannase. Journal of Biosciences, 3. pp. 135-142.

Kemparaju, K. and Krishnakantha, T. P. and Veerabasappa Gowda, T. (1999) Purifcation and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitor acidic phospholipase A2 from Indian saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus ) venom. Toxicon, 37. pp. 1659-1671.

Keshava, C. N. (2022) Dietary Modulation of O-GlcNAcylation in Adipose Tissue. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Kiran, K. R. and Karanth, N. G. and Divakar, S. (2002) Hydrogen ions in microaqueous phase during lipase catalyzed esterification in non-aqueous media. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 39. pp. 101-105. ISSN 0301-1208

Krishnaswamy, P. R. and Ramakrishna, M. (1967) Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid-synthesis and metabolic degradation. Indian Journal of Biochemistry, 4 (2). p. 22.


Lalitha, K. and Patwardhan, M. V. and Radhakrishnamurthy, R. (1974) Multiple forms of aspartate amino transferase from germinated green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 11. pp. 216-220.

Lalitha, K. and Radhakrishnamurthy, R. (1975) Aminotransferases in the larvae of the insect Corcyra cephalonica St. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 12. pp. 103-106.

Lulla, B. S. and Johar, D. S. (1956) Utilization of spent wash for the production of fungal amylase. Bulletin of Central Food Technological Research Institute, 5 (13). pp. 312-313.


Madhavi Latha, G. and Muralikrishna, G. (2018) Cereal acetyl and feruloyl esterases: Role in cell wall degradation-An overview. Trends in Carbohydrate Research, 10 (4). pp. 51-66.

Makroo, H. A. and Rastogi, N. K. and Srivastava, B. (2017) Enzyme inactivation of tomato juice by ohmic heating and its effects on physico-chemical characteristics of concentrated tomato paste. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40. pp. 1-10.

Manjunath, P. (1978) Studies on glucoamylases. Doctoral thesis, Central Food Technological Research Institute.

Manjunath, P. and Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1981) Studies on carbohydrate moieties of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase II: Isolation, Purification and Characterization of glycopeptides. Journal of Biosciences, 3 (4). pp. 333-342. ISSN 0021-8561

Manjunath, P. and Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1981) Studies on carbohydrate moieties of the glycoprotein, glucoamylase II of Aspergillus niger: Nature of carbohydrate peptide-linkage and structure of oligosaccharides. Journal of Biosciences, 3 (4). pp. 343-360. ISSN 0021-8561

Manohar, R. and Appu Rao, A. G. and Appaji Rao, N. (1984) Kinetic mechanism of the interaction of D-cycloserine with serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Biochemistry, 23. pp. 4116-4122.

Mery, Celine (1973) Polyphenoloxidase in brinjals solanum melanogena. Masters thesis, Central Food Technological Research Institute.

Mohan Kumar, N. S. and Vijay, Kishore and Manonmani, H. K. (2014) Chemical Modification of L-Asparaginase from Cladosporium Sp. for Improved Activity and Thermal Stability. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 44 (5). pp. 433-450.

Murugesan, Selvakumar and Sanjay, Kottekad and Inchara, Crasta and Sivakumar, Sreevathsan and Usharani, D. and Madan Kumar, P. and Sandeep, N. Mudliar (2021) Targeting COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease through active phytocompounds of ayurvedic medicinal plants – Emblica officinalis (Amla), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Bhumi Amla) and Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) – A molecular docking and simulation study. Computers in Biology and Medicine (2021), 136. p. 104683.


Nagaraja, K. V. and Patwardhan, M. V. (1974) Arrhenius plots for mitochondrial succinoxidase and succinate dehydrogenase activities of some plant tissues. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 11. pp. 54-56.

Nand, K. and Murthy, V. S. (1985) A simple method for removal of impurities from the crude enzyme preparation of Rhizopus oligosporus. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 22 (2). 139-141, 8 ref..

Nayana, V. V. (2016) Effect of Farnesol, p-coumaric acid and m-coumaric acid on AMPK- activated protein kinase in MDCK cells. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Neha, Vithani and Sahil, Batra and Balaji, Prakash and Nisanth, N. Nair (2017) Elucidating the GTP Hydrolysis Mechanism in FeoB – a Hydrophobic Amino Acid Substituted GTPase. ACS Catalysis, 7 (1). pp. 902-906.

Nirmala, M. and Muralikrishna, G. (2003) In vitro digestibility studies of cereal flours and starches using purified finger millet (Eleusine coracana, ragi, Indaf-15) amylases. Carbohydrate Polymers, 52 (3). pp. 275-283.

Nirmala, M. and Muralikrishna, G. (2003) Properties of three purified alpha-amylases from malted finger millet (ragi, Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15). Carbohydrate Polymers, 54 (1). pp. 43-50.


Paramahans, S. V. and Tharanathan, R. N. (1982) Scanning electron microscopy of enzyme digested Varagu starch granules. Starch, 34. pp. 73-76.

Patwardhan, M. V. and Sastry, L. V. L. (1957) Effect of asafoetida on the intestinal (wall) enzyme systems in vitro. Bulletin of Central Food Technological Research Institute, 6 (2). pp. 27-28.

Prabha, T. N. and Patwardhan, M. V. (1985) A comparison of the browning potential of some Indian cultivars of ripening apples. II. Journal of Food Science and Technology, India, 22 (6). 431-433, 8 ref..

Prakash, B. and Vidyasagar, M. and Madhukumar, M. S. and Muralikrishna, G. and Sreeramulu, K. (2009) Production, purification, and characterization of two extremely halotolerant, thermostable, and alkali-stable [alpha]-amylases from Chromohalobacter sp. TVSP 101. Process Biochemistry, 44 (2). pp. 210-215. ISSN 1359-5113

Prasanna, V. and Yashoda, H. M. and Prabha, T. N. and Tharanathan, R. N. (2003) Pectic polysaccharides during ripening of mango (Mangifera indica L). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83. pp. 1182-1186.

Pratiksha, R Subbumane (2022) Immobilization of FTase enzyme for the Production of FOS. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Praveen Kumar, Srivastava and Mukesh, Kapoor (2017) Production, properties, and applications of endo-β-mannanases. Biotechnology Advances, 35 (1). pp. 1-19. ISSN 0734-9750


Radhakrishnamurthy, R. and Sabry, Z. I. (1968) Liver and erythrocyte L-aspartate: and L-alanine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferases of the pyridoxine deficient rat. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry, 46. pp. 1081-1088.

Rahma, E. H. and Narasinga Rao, M. S. (1983) Effect of limited proteolysis on the functional properties of cottonseed flour. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 31 (2). 356-358, 6 ref..

Ramadas Bhat, U. and Salimath, P. V. and Tharanathan, R. N. (1983) Scanning electron microscopy of enzyme-digested starch granules. Starch/Staerke, 35 (8). 261-265, 31 ref..

Rao, K. S. J. and Rao, G. V. (1994) Effect of aluminium (Al) on brain mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity--an in vitro kinetic study. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 137 (1). pp. 57-60. ISSN 0300-8177

Rashmi, Ramachandra and Shetty, A. K. and Salimath, P. V. (2005) Quercetin alleviates activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 49. pp. 355-360.

Ravi Kumar, Kadeppagari (2004) Characterisation of A Maltogenic Alpha Amylase of Aspergillus Niger and Studies on The Enzyme Overproducing Mutant. PhD thesis, University of Mysore.


Sai Kumar, R. S. and Singh, Sridevi Annapurna and Rao, A. G. Appu (2009) Conformational stability of [alpha]-amylase from malted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor): Reversible unfolding by denaturants. Biochimie, 91 (4). pp. 548-557. ISSN 0300-9084

Santosh, R. Kanade and Devavratha, H. Rao and Ramanath, N. Hedge and Lalitha, R. Gowda (2009) The unique enzymatic function of field bean (Dolichos lablab) D-galactose specific lectin: a polyphenol oxidase. Glycoconjugate Journal, 26. pp. 535-545. ISSN 0282-0080

Satish, S. and Tejaswini, J. and Krishnakantha, T. P. and Veerabasappa Gowda, T. (2004) Purification of a Class B1 platelet aggregation inhibitor phospholipase A2 from Indian cobra (Naja Naja) venom. Biochimie, 86. pp. 203-210.

Shaik Akbar, Basha and Prasada Rao, U. J. S. (2017) Purification and characterization of peroxidase from sprouted green gram (Vigna radiata) roots and removal of phenol and p-chlorophenol by immobilized peroxidase. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97. pp. 3249-3260. ISSN 0022-5142

Shailaja, M. S. and Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1975) Lysine - sensitive aspertate kinase of Serratia marcescens. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 12. pp. 17-20.

Shailaja, M. S. and Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1976) Methionine - Repressible homoserine dehydrogenase of Serratia marcescens: Purification and properties. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 12 (1). pp. 15-22.

Sharma, A. and Joseph, R. (1979) Cell macerating activity of fungal culture fluids: Standardisation of assay procedure. Journal of Food Science and Technology, India, 16 (4). 170-172, 5 ref..

Sharmila, G. R. and Venkateswaran, G. (2017) Protective effect of bacillopeptidase CFR5 from Bacillus subtilis CFR5 on ceruleininduced pancreatitis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 491 (2). pp. 455-462.

Sheetal, Devi (2016) Optimization and scale- up of soya flour hydrolysis by α- galactosidase from Vigna mungo and its application in bakery. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Shivanna, B. D. and Ramakrishna, M. (1985) L-galactosidase from germinating guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) seeds. Journal of Biosciences, 9 (1-2). pp. 109-116.

Shrikanth, C. B. (2019) Effect of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase modulators on sulphated glycosaminoglycans of tubular kidney cells under high glucose conditions. Doctoral thesis, AcSIR.

Siddegowda, Bhavani and Trivedi, V. and Jala, V. R. and Subramanya, H. S. and Purnima Kaul, Tiku and Prakash, V. (2005) Role of Lys-226 in the Catalytic Mechanism of Bacillus Stearothermophilus Serine HydroxymethyltransferasesCrystal Structure and Kinetic Studies. Biochemistry, 44. pp. 6929-6937.

Sindhu, R. and Manonmani, H. K. (2018) Expression and characterization of recombinant L-asparaginase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Protein Expression and Purification, 143. pp. 83-91. ISSN 1046-5928

Sindhuja, Chandrasekar (2018) Effect of Major Inhibitors on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Sneha, Mishra et al. and Ravindra, P. V. (2022) Sirtuin 6 inhibition protects against glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by regulating IGF/PI3K/AKT signaling. Nature Communications, 13. p. 5415.

Somashekar, B. R. and Lohith, K. and Manohar, B. and Divakar, S. (2007) Inhibition of Rhizomucor miehei and Candida rugosa Lipases by D-glucose in esterification between L-Alanine and D-glucose. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 103 (2). pp. 122-128. (Submitted)

Sooraj, R. (2022) Expression and Lipid Profile Of Putative Lipase Gene in (Lipic-001) E.Coli. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Sreenath, H. K. and Joseph, R. and Sreenivasamurthy, V. (1978) Studies on xylan hydrolases from different strains of Streptomyces and their mutual influences in the breakdown of xylan. Folia Microbiologica, 23. pp. 299-303.

Sreenivasamurthy, V. and Swaminathan, M. (1955) Colorimetric determination of dehydrogenase activities of liver using triphenyltetrazolium bromide. Indian Journal of Physiology and Allied Sciences, 9. pp. 107-112.

Srinivasan, K. and Radhakrishnamurthy, R. (1977) Effect of beta- and gamma-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane on some liver and kidney enzymes in albino rats. Current Science, 46. pp. 598-600.

Srinivasan, K. and Radhakrishnamurthy, R. (1983) Induction of liver mixed function oxygenase system by beta- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 20. pp. 84-91.

Srinivasan, K. and Radhakrishnamurty, R. (1988) Biochemical changes produced by beta- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in albino rats. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes, 23 (4). pp. 367-86. ISSN 0360-1234

Sudhindra Rao, K. and Rajendran, S. and Rajeshwara, A. N. and Prakash, V. (1991) Structural Stability of Lipase from Wheat Germ Alkaline pH. Journal of Protein Chemistry, 10 (3). pp. 291-299.

Sujata Dutta, Gupta (2009) In-vitro Characterization and Bioactivity Studies of Xylooligosaccharides. [Student Project Report]

Sundaresh, C. S. and Rao, P. B. R. (1981) Adenosine deaminase activity of leukocytes in protein-calorie malnourished rats. Nutrition Reports International, 23 (3). 531-536; 19 ref..


Tharanathan, R. N. and Salimath, P. V. and Wankhede, D. B. (1980) Amylolytic susceptibility of native groundnut and ragi starch granules as viewed by scanning electron microscopy. Staerke, 32 (5). 158-161, 27 ref..


Upadhya, R. and Nagajyothi, Ms. and Bhat, S. G. (2000) Stabilization of D-amino acid oxidase and catalase in permeabilized Rhodotorula gracilis cells and its application for the preparation of alpha-ketoacids*. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 68 (4). pp. 430-6. ISSN 0006-3592


Van, T. T. and Srivastava, U. S. and Radhakrishnamurty, R. and Thakur, M. L. (1995) Brain Polysomes and Poly-U Stimulated Protein Synthesis in Food Restricted Rats. Nutrition Research, 15 (5). pp. 699-709.

Veenashri, B.R. (2015) Xylo-oligosaccharides isolated from ragi (Eleusine coracana) bran: determination of their structure and function. PhD thesis, University of Mysore.

Vidyaranya, Shenoy K. (1975) Chemical and enzymatic treatment of groundnut protein with a view to obtain products stable in acid medium. [Student Project Report] (Submitted)

Vijayalakshmi, K. R. and Rajagopal Rao, D. and Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1975) Studies on a 2, 3-diaminopropionate: Ammonia-lyase from a pseudomonad. Hoppe Seyler's Zeitschrift fuer Physiologische Chemie, 356. pp. 193-201.

Vishu Kumar, Acharya B and Gowda, Lalitha R. and Tharanathan, R. N. (2004) Non-specific depolymerization of chitosan by pronase and characterization of the resultant products. European Journal of Biochemistry, 271. pp. 713-723.


Wilhelm, R. Frisell and Madhav, V. Patwardhan and Cosmo, G. Mackenzie (1965) Quantitative Studies on the Soluble Compartments of Light and Heavy Mitochondria from Rat Liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 240 (4). pp. 1829-1835.


Yeshvanthi, Singh (2022) Identification and Evaluation of Acyltransferase Inhibitors from Edible Plant Sources for Management and Prevention of Obesity. Doctoral thesis, Central Food Technological Research Institute.

Yeshvanthi, Singh and Akshay, Datey and Dipshikha, Chakravortty and Ajay, W. Tumaney (2021) Novel Cell-Based Assay to Investigate Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 Inhibitory Activity Using HIEC‑6 Cell Line. ACS Omega, 6. pp. 1732-1740.

This list was generated on Thu Sep 21 17:57:43 2023 IST.